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by Fabien Durand — last modified Jun 04, 2018 03:58 PM

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Fabien Durand            


Chargé de Recherche, IRD



14 avenue Edouard BELIN

31400 TOULOUSE, France

Email : fabien.durand*at*
Téléphone : 00-33 -5-61-33-29-26



Background :


  • 1998 : DEA (M/S), University of Paris VI
  • 2002 : Ph. D., University of Toulouse III
  • 2003 : Physical Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India
  • Since 2004 : IRD/LEGOS, Toulouse, FRANCE
  • 2012 : Habilitation à Diriger des Recherches (HDR), University of Toulouse III: "Implications of salinity in the physics of Northern Indian Ocean" .


Research interests :


- Hydrodynamics of the [continent-rivers-estuaries-coastal ocean] continuum in the northern Bay of Bengal

- Role of salinity in tropical climate dynamics

- Thermocline waters circulation in the South-Western Pacific Ocean


Coastal altimetry dataset : Northern Indian Ocean :


The dataset used in Durand et al. [2009] has moved. An up-to-date version is available on


Refereed publications (please ask for reprints):



V. Ruault, J. Jouanno, F. Durand, J. Chanut, R. Benshila, Role of the tide on the structure of the Amazon plume: a numerical modeling approach. J. Geophys. Res., 125, doi: 10.1029/2019JC015495, 2020.

-  Becker, M., F. Papa, M. Karpytchev, C. Delebecque, Y. Krien, J.U. Khan, V. Ballu, F. Durand, G. Le Cozannet, A. K. M. S. Islam, S. Calmant, C. K. Shum, Water level changes, subsidence, and sea level rise in the Ganges–Brahmaputra–Meghna delta. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2020, 201912921; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1912921117.

-  Sherin V. R., F. Durand, F. Papa, AKM Saiful Islam, V. V. Gopalakrishna, M. Khaki, V. Suneel, Evidences of recent salinity intrusion in the Bengal delta. Continental Shelf Research, doi: 10.1016/j.csr.2020.104142, 2020.

Khan, J.U., F. Durand, L. Testut, Y. Krien, A.K.M. S. Islam, Sea level rise inducing tidal modulation along the coasts of Bengal delta. Continental Shelf Research, doi: 10.1016/j.csr.2020.104289, 2020.


- B. Rohith, Arya Paul, F. Durand, L. Testut, S. Prerna, SSVS Ramakrishna and SSC Shenoi, Basin-wide sea level coherency in tropical Indian Ocean driven by Madden-Julian Oscillation. Nature Communications, doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-09243-5, 2019.

- Rahman, S., Islam, A.S., Tazkia, A.R., Shaha, P.K., Krien, Y., Durand, F., Testut L., Islam, G.M.T., Bala S.K. (2019) Projected changes of inundation of cyclonic storms in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta of Bangladesh due to SLR by 2100. Journal of Earth System Science 128:145, doi: 10.1007/s12040-019-1184-8.

Krishnamohan KS, J. Vialard, M. Lengaigne, S. Masson, G. Samson, S. Pous, Neetu S, F. Durand, S. Shenoi, G. Madec. Is there an effect of Bay of Bengal salinity on the Northern Indian Ocean Climate? Deep Sea Res II, doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2019.04.003, 2019.

- F. Durand, C. Piecuch, M. Becker, F. Papa, Sherin V. R., J. U. Khan, R. Ponte, Impact of continental freshwater runoff on coastal sea level. Surveys in Geophysics,

Ponte R., M. Carson, M. Cirano, C. Domingues, S. Jevrejeva, M. Marcos, G. Mitchum, R. S. W. van de Wal, P. L. Woodworth, M. Ablain, F. Ardhuin, V. Ballu, M. Becker, J. Benveniste, F. Birol, E. Bradshaw, A. Cazenave, P. De Mey-Frémaux, F. Durand, et al., Towards comprehensive observing and modeling systems for monitoring and predicting regional to coastal sea level. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6:437, doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00437, 2019.

- J. U. Khan, N. Ansary, F. Durand, L. Testut, M. Ishaque, S. Calmant, Y. Krien, A.K.M. S. Islam, F. Papa, High Resolution Intertidal Topography from Sentinel-2 Multi-Spectral Imagery: Synergy between Remote Sensing and Numerical Modelling. Remote Sensing, 11, 2888; doi:10.3390/rs11242888, 2019.



- Sherin V. Raju, F. Durand, V. V. Gopalakrishna, S. Anuvinda, A. V. S. Chaitanya, R. Bourdalle-Badie, F. Papa, Signature of Indian Ocean Dipole on the western boundary current of the Bay of Bengal revealed from 27 years of repeated in situ observations. DSR-I, doi 10.1016/j.dsr.2018.04.002, 2018.

- Bergmann, M., F. Durand, Y. Krien, Md.J.U. Khan, M. Ishaque, L. Testut, S. Calmant, P. Maisongrande, A.K.M. S. Islam, F. Papa, S. Ouillon, Topography of the intertidal zone along the shoreline of Chittagong (Bangladesh) using PROBA-V imagery. Int. J. Rem. Sens., in press, 2018.

- Krien, Y., G. Arnaud, R. Cécé, C. Ruf, A. Belmadani, J. Khan, D. Bernard, A.K.M.S. Islam, F. Durand, L. Testut, P. Palany, N. Zahibo, Can we improve parametric cyclonic wind fields using recent satellite remote sensing data? Remote Sensing, 2018, 10, 1963; doi:10.3390/rs10121963.


- Tazkia A.R., Y. Krien, F. Durand, L. Testut, AKM S Islam, F. Papa, X. Bertin, Seasonal modulation of M2 tide in the northern Bay of Bengal. Cont. Shelf Res., 137, 154-162, doi 10.1016/j.csr.2016.12.008, 2017.

- Y. Krien, L. Testut, AKM S Islam, X. Bertin, F. Durand, C. Mayet, AR Tazkia, M. Becker, S. Calmant, F. Papa, V. Ballu, CK Shum, ZH Khan, Towards improved storm surge models in the northern Bay of Bengal. Continental Shelf Res.,135, 58–73,doi 10.1016/j.csr.2017.01.014,2017.

- Samson, G. S. Masson, F. Durand, P. Terray, S. Jullien, Role of land surface albedo on the Indian Summer Monsoon biases in a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model. Climate Dynamics, DOI: 10.1007/s00382-016-3161-0, 2017.

Durand, F., F. Marin, J.-L. Fuda, T. Terre, The East Caledonian Current: a case example for the intercomparison between AltiKa and in situ measurements in a coastal boundary current. Marine Geodesy, doi: 10.1080/01490419.2016.1258375, 2017.


- V.P. Akhil, M. Lengaigne, J. Vialard, F. Durand, M. G. Keerthi, A.V.S. Chaitanya, F. Papa, C. de Boyer Montégut, A modelling study of processes controlling the Bay of Bengal sea surface salinity interannual variability. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 121, doi:10.1002/2016JC011662., 2016.

- Y. Krien, C. Mayet, L. Testut, F. Durand, AR Tazkia, AKM S Islam, V.V Gopalakrishna, M. Becker, S. Calmant, CK Shum, ZH Khan, F. Papa and V. Ballu, Improved bathymetric dataset and tidal model for the northern Bay of Bengal, Marine Geodesy, doi: 10.1080/01490419.2016.1227405, 2016.

- Hernandez, O., J. Jouanno, and F. Durand, Do the Amazon and Orinoco freshwater plumes really matter for hurricane-induced ocean surface cooling?, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 121, doi:10.1002/2015JC011021.

- V.P. Akhil, M. Lengaigne, F. Durand, J. Vialard, A. V. S. Chaitanya, M.G. Keerthi, V.V. Gopalakrishna, J. Boutin, C. de Boyer Montégut, Assessment of seasonal and interannual surface salinity signals retrieved from SMOS and Aquarius missions in the Bay of Bengal. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 37:5,1089-1114, DOI: 10.1080/01431161.2016.1145362


- Chaitanya A.V.S., M. Lengaigne, J. Vialard, V.V. Gopalakrishna, F. Durand, Ch. Kranthikumar, S. Amritash, V. Suneel, F. Papa and M. Ravichandran, Fishermen-operated salinity measurements reveal a “river in the sea” flowing along the east coast of India. BAMS, 2014, doi:

- Frappart F, F. Papa, V. Marieu, Y. Malbeteau, F. Jordy, S. Calmant, F. Durand, S. Bala, Prelimary assessment of SARAL/ALTIKA observations over the Ganges-Brahmaputra and Irrawaddy rivers. Mar. Geodesy, doi: 10.1080/01490419.2014.990591.


- R. Benshila, F. Durand, S. Masson, R. Bourdalle-Badie, C. de Boyer Montégut, F. Papa and G. Madec, The upper Bay of Bengal salinity structure in a high-resolution model. Ocean Modelling 74, 36-52, 2014.

- C. de Boyer Montégut, F. Durand, R. Bourdallé-Badie, B. Blanke, Role of fronts in the formation of Arabian Sea barrier layers during summer monsoon. Ocean Dynamics, DOI 10.1007/s10236-014-0716-7, 2014.

- V.P. Akhil, F. Durand, M. Lengaigne, J. Vialard, M.G. Keerthi,  V.V. Gopalakrishna, C. Deltel, F. Papa and C. de Boyer Montégut, A modeling study of the processes of surface salinity seasonal cycle in the Bay of Bengal. J. Geophys. Res., 119, 3926–3947, doi:10.1002/2013JC009632.

- Chaitanya A.V.S., F. Durand, S. Mathew, V.V. Gopalakrishna, F. Papa, M. Lengaigne, J. Vialard, Ch. Kranthikumar and R. Venkatesan, Observed year-to-year sea surface salinity variability in the Bay of Bengal during the period 2009 – 2014. Oc. Dyn., in press, 2014. 


- Kurian, N., M. Lengaigne, V.V. Gopalkrishna, J. Vialard, S. Pous, A.-C. Peter, F. Durand and S. Naik, Processes of India’s offshore summer intraseasonal sea surface temperature variability. Ocean Dynamics, 2013, DOI:10.1007/s10236-013-0604-6.

- F. Durand, G. Alory, R. Dussin and N. Reul, SMOS reveals the signature of Indian Ocean Dipole events. Ocean Dynamics, DOI 10.1007/s10236-013-0660-y, 2013.

- I. Suresh, J. Vialard, M. Lengaigne, W. Han, J. McCreary, F. Durand, P.M. Muraleedharan, Origins of wind-driven intraseasonal sea-level variations in the North Indian Ocean coastal waveguide. Geophysical Research Letters, 40, 2013, 40, doi:10.1002/2013GL058312



- Casimir. Y. Da-Allada, G. Alory, Y. Du Penhoat, E. Kestenare, F. Durand, N. M. Hounkonnou, Seasonal mixed-layer salinity balance in the tropical Atlantic Ocean: mean state and seasonal cycle. J. Geophys. Res., in press.

- Neetu, S., M. Lengaigne, E. M. Vincent, J. Vialard, G. Madec, G. Samson, M. R. Ramesh Kumar, F. Durand, Influence of upper-ocean stratification on tropical cyclones-induced surface cooling in the Bay of Bengal. J. Geophys. Res, 2012, 117, p. C12020. ISSN 0148-0227.

- Papa, F., S. K. Bala, R. K. Pandey, F. Durand, V. V. Gopalakrishna, A. Rahman and W. B. Rossow, Ganga-Brahmaputra river discharge from Jason-2 radar altimetry: an update to the long-term satellite-derived estimates of continental freshwater forcing flux into the Bay of Bengal. J. Geophys. Res, 2012.



- Grenier, M., S. Cravatte, B. Blanke, C. Menkes, A. Koch-Larrouy, F. Durand, A. Melet and C. Jeandel, From the western boundary currents to the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent: Modeled pathways and water mass evolutions. J. Geophys. Res., 116, C12044, doi:10.1029/2011JC007477, 2011.

- Durand, F., F. Papa, A. Rahman and S. K. Bala, Impact of Ganges-Brahmaputra interannual discharge variations on Bay of Bengal salinity and temperature during the 1992–99 period. J. Earth Syst. Sci., 120, 5, 859–872, 2011.



- Gopalakrishna, V. V., F. Durand, K. Nisha, M. Lengaigne,T. P. Boyer, J. Costa, R. R. Rao, M. Ravichandran, S. Amrithash, L. John, K. Girish, C. Ravichandran and V. Suneel, Observed intra-seasonal to interannual variability of the upper ocean thermal structure in the South-Eastern Arabian Sea during 2002 – 2008. Deep-Sea Res. I, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2010.03.010, 57, 739-754, 2010.

- Shankar D, Aparna Saieesh Gandhi, J. P. McCreary, I Suresh, S. Neetu, F. Durand, S.S.C. Shenoi, M. A. Al Saafani , Minima of interannual sea-level variability in the Indian Ocean. Progress in Oceanography, doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2009.10.002, 2010.

- F. Marin, E. Kestenare, T. Delcroix, F. Durand, S. Cravatte, G. Eldin and R. Bourdallé-Badie, Annual reversal of the Equatorial Intermediate Current in the Pacific: Observations and model diagnostics. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 2010.

- Papa, F., Durand, F., A. Rahman, S. K. Bala and W. B. Rossow, Satellite altimeter‐derived monthly discharge of the Ganga‐Brahmaputra River and its seasonal to interannual variations from 1993 to 2008. J. Geophys. Res., 115, C12013, doi:10.1029/2009JC006075, 2010.


- Durand, F. D. Shankar, F. Birol, S.S.C. Shenoi, Spatio-temporal structure of the East India Coastal Current from satellite altimetry. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, C02013, doi:10.1029/2008JC004807.

- J. Vialard, S.S.C Shenoi, J.P. McCreary, D. Shankar, F. Durand, V. Fernando and S.R. Shetye, Intraseasonal response of Indian-Ocean coastal waveguide to the Madden-Julian Oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L14606, doi:10.1029/2009GL038450.


- Durand, F. D. Shankar, F. Birol, S.S.C. Shenoi, Estimating boundary currents from satellite altimetry: A case study for the east coast of India. Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 64, 831-845.


- Durand, F., D. Shankar, C. de Boyer Montégut, S.S.C. Shenoi, B. Blanke and G. Madec, Modeling the barrier-layer formation in the South-Eastern Arabian Sea. Journal of Climate, Vol. 20, 10, 2109-2120.

- de Boyer Montégut, C., J. Vialard, S.S.C. Shenoi, D. Shankar, F. Durand, C. Ethé and G. Madec, Simulated seasonal and interannual variability of mixed layer heat budget in the north Indian Ocean. Journal of Climate, Vol. 20, 3249-3268.

- M.A. Al Saafani, S. S. C. Shenoi, D. Shankar, M. Aparna, J. Kurian, F. Durand and P. N. Vinayachandran, Westward movement of eddies into the Gulf of Aden from the Arabian Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, C11004, doi:10.1029/2006JC004020.

- P. N. Vinayachandran, D. Shankar, J. Kurian, F. Durand and S. S. C. Shenoi, Arabian Sea Mini Warm Pool and the Monsoon Onset Vortex. Current Science, Vol. 93, 2, 203-214.

- M. Lévy, D. Shankar, J.-M. André, S. S. C. Shenoi, F. Durand and C. de Boyer Montégut, Basin-wide seasonal evolution of the Indian Ocean's phytoplankton blooms. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, C12014, doi:10.1029/2007JC004090.


- Papa, F., C. Prigent, F. Durand and W. B. Rossow, Wetland dynamics using a suite of satellite observations: A case study of application and evaluation for the Indian Subcontinent. Geophysical Research Letters, VOL. 33, L08401, doi:10.1029/2006GL025767.


- Masson, S., J.-J. Luo, G. Madec, J. Vialard, F. Durand, S. Gualdi, E. Guilyardi, S. Behera, P. Delecluse, A. Navarra and T. Yamagata, Impact of barrier layer on winter-spring variability of the South-Eastern Arabian Sea. Geophys. Res. Let., 32, doi:10.1029/2004GL021980, 2005.

- Durand, F. and G. Reverdin, A statistical method for correcting salinity observations from autonomous profiling floats: an ARGO perspective. Journal of Atm. & Oc. Techn., 22,3,293-301, 2005.

- Shenoi, S.S.C., D. Shankar, V.V. Gopalakrishna and F. Durand, Role of ocean on the formation and decay of the core of the warm pool in the southeastern Arabian Sea. Mausam-Indian Journal of Meteorology and Geophysics, 56, 1, 147-160, 2005.


- Shankar, D., V. V. Gopalakrishna, S.S.C. Shenoi, F. Durand, S.R. Shetye, N. Araligidad and G.S. Michael, Observational evidence for westward propagation of temperature inversions in the southeastern Arabian Sea. Geophys. Res. Let. 31, doi:10.1029/2004GL019652, 2004.

- Durand, F. S.R. Shetye, J. Vialard, D. Shankar, S.S.C. Shenoi, C. Ethé, and G. Madec, Impact of temperature inversions on SST evolution in the South-Eastern Arabian Sea during the pre-summer monsoon season. Geophys. Res. Let. 30,doi:10.1029/ 2003GL018906, 2004.


- Durand, F., L. Gourdeau, J. Verron and T. Delcroix, Can we improve the representation of modelled mixed-layer by assimilating surface-only satellite-derived data ? A case study for the tropical Pacific during the 1997-1998 El Nino. Journal of Geophysical Research 108(C6), 3200, doi:10.1029/2002JC001603, 2003.


- Durand, F., L. Gourdeau, T. Delcroix and J. Verron, Assimilation of Sea Surface Salinity in a Tropical OGCM : a Twin Experiment Approach. Journal of Geophysical Research 107(C12), 8010, doi:10.1029/2001JC000849, 2002.

- Reverdin, G., F.Durand, J. Mortensen, F. Schott, H. Valdimarsson et W. Zenk, Recent Changes in the Surface Salinity of the North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre. Journal of Geophysical Research 107(C12), 8010, doi:10.1029/2001JC001010, 2002.


- Durand, F. and T. Delcroix, On the Variability of the Tropical Pacific Thermal Structure during the 1979-96 period, as Deduced from XBT Sections. Journal of Physical Oceanography 30, 3261-3269, 2000.



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