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by Florence Birol — last modified Jan 29, 2021 04:29 PM


Florence Birolflorence birol


Physicienne CNAP

Adresse: LEGOS

14 avenue Edouard BELIN

Email :
Téléphone : 05 61 33 29 24


Principal responsabilities (current)

  • 2012-present: Head of the CTOH Observation Service, LEGOS/OMP,
  • 2017-present: Conseil Scientifique Groupe de Mission Mercator Coriolis - Member
  • 2020-present: Conseil National des Universités - Section 37 - Member
  • 2020-present: Conseil National des Astronomes et Physiciens - Section Surfaces Continentales Océan Atmosphère - Vice présidente

Research interests:


  • Development of altimetric data tools and applications dedicated to coastal areas.
  • Environmental satellite data analysis.
  • Data analysis in physical oceanography for the study of currents, waves and sea surface height variations.
  • Coastal physical oceanography.


  • 2000-2001 : Postdocdoral scientist, Space Oceanography Division, CLS, Ramonville St Agne.
  • 2002-2003 : Postdocdoral scientist, Modelisation and Data Assimilation Group, LEGI, Grenoble.
  • 2004 : Research scientist, Data Assimilation Team, MERCATOR, Ramonville St Agne.
  • 2005-2017 : Associate Professor, LEGOS/OMP/University of Toulouse, Toulouse, FRANCE.
  • 2017-present : Professor, LEGOS/OMP/University of Toulouse Toulouse, FRANCE.



  • 1996 : DEA (M/S), University of Toulouse III.
  • 1999 : Ph. D., University of Toulouse III.


Peer-reviewed publications:

  • Birol, F, Leger, F., Passaro. M., Cazenave A., Nino F., Callafat F., Shaw A., Legeais J.F., Gouzenes Y., Schwatke C. and Benveniste J.: The X-TRACK/ALES multi-mission processing system: new advances in altimetry towards the coast. Advances in Space Research, In press, 2021.
  • The SL_cci+ coastal sea level team: Coastal sea level anomalies and associated trends from Jason satellite altimetry over 2002 - 2018. Scientific Data 7 (Nature), Sci Data 7, 357,, 2020.
  • Gouzenes, Y., Léger, F., Cazenave, A., Birol, F., Bonnefond, P., Passaro, M., Nino, F., Almar, R., Laurain, O., Schwatke, C., Legeais, J.-F., and Benveniste, J.: Coastal Sea Level rise at Senetosa (Corsica) during the Jason altimetry missions, Ocean Sci., 16, 1165–1182,, 2020.
  • Léger F., F. Birol, F. Niño, M. Passaro, F. Marti and A. Cazenave: X-Track/Ales Regional Altimeter Product for Coastal Application: Toward a New Multi-Mission Altimetry Product at High Resolution, IGARSS 2019 - 2019 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Yokohama, Japan, 2019, pp. 8271-8274.
  • Ponte R.M., Carson M., Cirano M., Domingues C.M., Jevrejeva S., Marcos M., Mitchum G., van de Wal R. S. W., Woodworth P.L., Ablain M., - Ardhuin F., Ballu V., Becker M., Benveniste J., Birol F., Bradshaw E., Cazenave A., De Mey-Frémaux P., Durand F., Ezer T., Fu L.-L., Fukumori I., Gordon K., Gravelle M., Griffies S.M., Han W., Hibbert A., Hughes C.W., Idier D., Kourafalou V. H., Little C.M., Matthews A., Melet A., Merrifield M., Meyssignac B., Minobe S., Penduff T., Picot N., Piecuch C., Ray R.D., Rickards L., Santamaría-Gómez A., Stammer D., Staneva J., Testut L., Thompson K., Thompson P., Vignudelli S., Williams J., Williams S. D. P., Wöppelmann G., Zanna L., Zhang X., 2019: Towards Comprehensive Observing and Modeling Systems for Monitoring and Predicting Regional to Coastal Sea Level. Frontiers in Marine Science, Vol. 6, p.437,
  • Benveniste J., Cazenave A., Vignudelli S., Fenoglio-Marc L., Shah R., Almar R., Andersen O., Birol F., Bonnefond P., Bouffard J., Calafat F., Cardellach E., Cipollini P., Le Cozannet G., Dufau C., Fernandes M.J., Frappart F., Garrison J., Gommenginger C., Han G., Høyer J.L., Kourafalou V., Leuliette E., Li Z., Loisel H., Madsen K.S., Marcos M., Melet A., Meyssignac B., Pascual A., Passaro M., Ribó S., Scharroo R., Song Y.T.., Speich S., Wilkin J., Woodworth P., Wöppelmann G., 2019: Requirements for a Coastal Hazards Observing System. Frontiers in Marine Science, vol. 6 p.348,
  • F. Marti, A. Cazenave, F. Birol, M. Passaro, F. Leger, F. Nino, R. Almar, J. Benveniste, J.F. Legeais, 2019: Altimetry-based sea level trends along the coasts of western Africa. Advances in Space Research.
  • A. Carret, Birol, F., Estournel, C., Zakardjian, B., and Testor, P., 2019. Synergy between in situ and altimetry data to observe and study the Northern Current variations (NW Mediterranean Sea), Ocean Sci. Discuss., Ocean Sci., 15, 269-290,
  • S. Vignudelli, F. Birol, J. Benveniste, L.-L. Fu,, N. Picot, M. Raynal , H. Roinard, 2018: Satellite altimetry measurements of sea level in the coastal zone. Surveys in Geophysics. DOI 10.1007/s10712-019-09569-1.
  • I. Manso-Narvarte, A. Caballero, A. Rubio, C. Dufau and F. Birol, 2018: Joint analysis of coastal altimetry and HF radar data: observability of seasonal and mesoscale ocean dynamics in the Bay of Biscay. Ocean science, Ocean Science, doi: /os-2018-33.
  • P. L. Vu , F. Frappart, J. Darrozes, V. Marieu, F. Blarel, G. Ramillien, P. Bonnefond, F. Birol, 2018: Multi-satellite altimeter calibration along the Atlantic coast from ERS-2 to SARAL. Remote Sensing, Remote Sensing. 10, 93; doi:10.3390/rs10010093.
  • X. Xu, F. Birol and A. Cazenave, 2018: Evaluation of coastal sea level of Jason-2 altimetry offshore Hong Kong, Remote Sensing, 25. 10.3390/rs10020282.
  • J. Verron, P. Bonnefond, L. Aouf, F. Birol, S.A. Bhowmick, S. Calmant, A. Carret, T. Conchy , J.F. Crétaux, G. Dibarboure, A.K. Dubey, S. Fleury, K. Geureirro, P.K. Gupta, M. Hamon, F. Jébri, R. Kumar, R. Morrow, A. Pascual, I. Pujol, E. Rémy, R. rémy, WHE Smith, J. Tournadre and O. Vergara, 2018: The benefits of the Ka-band as evidenced from the SARAL/AltiKa Altimetric mission. Part 2. Remote Sensing, 10(1), 83; doi:10.3390/rs10010083.
  • Marcos M., G. Wöppelmann, A. Mathhews, R.M Ponte, F. Birol, F. Ardhuin, G. Coco, Á. S.-Gómez, V. Ballu, L. Testut, D.P Chambers, J. Stopa, 2018: Coastal sea level and related fields from existing observing systems. Surveys in Geophysics, doi:10.1007/s10712-019-09513-3.
  • F. Frappart, A. Cazenave, G. Ramillien, F. Birol, D. Blumstein, R. Morrow and F. Rémy, 2017: Satellite altimetry. Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, doi.1002/047134608X.W.1125.pub2.
  • R. Morrow, A. Carret, F. Birol, F. Niño, G. Valladeau, F. Boy, C. Bachelier and B. Zakardjian, 2017: Observability of fine-scale ocean dynamics in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Ocean Science, doi:10.5194/os-13-13-2017
  • L. Gourdeau, B. Djath, A. Ganachaud, F. Niño, F. Birol, J. Verron and N. Fuller, 2017: Altimetry in a regional tropical sea: benefits from the SARAL/ALtiKA mission. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, Vol.5, doi:10.1109/MGRS.2017.2679484
  • E.E. Ampou, O. Johan, C.E. Menkes, F. Niño, F. Birol, S. Ouillon, S. Andréfouët, 2017: Coral mortality induced by the 2015-2016 El-Niño event in Indonesia: the effect of rapid sea level fall. Biogeoscience, doi:10.5194/bg-14-817-2017.
  • P. Cipollini, J. Benveniste, F. Birol, J. Fernandes, E. Obligis, M. Passaro, P.T. Strub, P. Thibaut, G. Valladeau, S. Vignudelli and J. Wilkin, 2017. Satellite altimetry in coastal regions. CRC Book, Chapter 12. 
  • F. Jébri, B. Zakardjian, F. Birol, J. Bouffard and C. Sammari, 2017:  Interannual variations of the surface currents and the volume transport in the Central Mediterranean Sea based on coastal altimetry. Journal of Geophysical Research Ocean, doi10.1002/2017JC012836.
  • F. Jébri, F. Birol, B. Zakardjian, J. Bouffard and C. Sammari, 2016:  Variability of the surface circulation observed from coastal altimetry over the Tunisian shelf (Central Mediterranean Sea). Journal of Geophysical Research Ocean, doi:10.1002/2016JC011961.
  • F. Frappart, B. Legrésy; F. Niño; F. Blarel; N. Fuller; S. Fleury; F. Birol and S. Calmant, 2016: An ERS-2 altimetry reprocessing compatible with ENVISAT for long-term land and ice sheets studies. Remote Sensing of environment, vol. 184, pp 558–581, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2016.07.037.
  • F. Birol, N. Fuller, F. Lyard, M. Cancet, F. Niño, C. Delebecque, S. Fleury, F. Toublanc, A. Melet and M. Saraceno, F. Leger, 2016. Coastal applications from nadir altimetry: example of the X-TRACK regional products. Advances in Space Research, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2016.11.005.
  • F. Birol and F. Niño: Ku and Ka-Band Altimeter Data in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Marine Geodesy no. SARAL/Altika special issue, vol. 38, doi:10.1080/01490419.2015.1034814, 2015.
  • F. Birol and C. Delebecque, 2014: Using high sampling rate (10/20 Hz) altimeter data for the observation of coastal surface currents: A case study over the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, J. Mar. Syst., doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2013.07.009, 2014.
  • L. Testut, F. Birol and C. Delebecque: Regional tidal modeling and evaluation of tidal geophysical correction for Jason-2 altimeter data: a case study over the Kerguelen Plateau, Southern Indian Ocean.  Marine Geodesy, Marine Geodesy, doi: 10.1080/01490419.2012.718642, 2012.
  • R. Dussurget, F. Birol, R. Morrow and P. Demey: Fine-resolution altimetry data for a regional application in the Bay of Biscay. Marine Geodesy, Marine Geodesy, DOI: 10.1080/01490419.2011.584835, 2011.
  • J. Bouffard, L. Roblou, F. Birol, A. Pascual, Fenoglio, M. Cancet, R. Morrow and Y. Ménard: Validation and application of improved coastal altimetry strategies over the North Western Mediterranean Sea, Coastal Altimetry. Chapter 12 in S. Vignudelli,  A.G. Kostianoy, P. Cipollini, J. Benveniste (eds.), Coastal Altimetry, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011.
  •  L. Roblou, J. Lamouroux, J. Bouffard, F. Lyard, M. Le Hénaff, A. Lombard, P. Marsalaix, P. De Mey and F. Birol : Post-processing altimiter data toward coastal applications and integration into coastal models.Chapter 9 in S. Vignudelli,  A.G. Kostianoy, P. Cipollini, J. Benveniste (eds.), Coastal Altimetry, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011.
  •  F. Birol, M. Cancet, C. Estournel: Aspects of the seasonal variability of the Northern Current (NW Mediterranean Sea) observed by altimetry. J. of Mar. Systems, 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2010.01.005, 2010.
  • F. Durand, D. Shankar, F. Birol, S.S.C. Shenoi: Spatio-temporal structure of the East India Coastal Current from satellite altimetry. J. of Geophys Res., 114, C02013, doi:10.1029/2008JC004807, 2009.
  • F. Durand, D. Shankar, F. Birol, S.S.C. Shenoi: An algorithm to estimate coastal currents from satellite altimetry: a case study for the East India Coastal Current. Journal of Oceanography, 64, pp 831-845, 2008.
  • B. Tranchant, C.E. Testut, L. Renault, N. Ferry, F.Birol and P.Brasseur: Expected impact of the future SMOS and Aquarius Ocean surface salinity missions in the MERCATOR operational systems: New perspectives to monitor the ocean circulation, Remote Sensing of Environment, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2007.06.023, 2008.
  • D. Rozier, F. Birol, E. Cosme, P. Brasseur, J.M. Brankart and J. Verron: A reduced-order Kalman filter for data assimilation in physical oceanography. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics Review, , 49, doi:10.1137/050635717, 2007.
  • S. Lebedev, Sirota A., Medvedev D., Khlebnikova S., Vignudelli S., Snaith H. M., Cipollini P., Venuti F., Lyard F., Cretaux  J. F., Birol F., Bouffard J., Roblou L., Kostianoy A., Ginzburg A., Sheremet N., Kuzmina E., Mamedov R., Ismatova K., Alyev A., Mustafayev B.: Exploiting satellite altimetry in coastal ocean through the ALTICORE project. Russian Journal of Earth Sciences, 10, ES1002, doi:10.2205/2007ES000262, 2007. 
  • P. Brasseur, P. Bahurel, L. Bertino, F. Birol, J.-M. Brankart, N. Ferry, E. Remy, J. Schröter, C.-E.Testut, B. Tranchant, J. Verron, P.J. van Leeuwen: Data assimilation for marine monitoring and prediction: The MERCATOR operational assimilation systems and the MERSEA developments. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society,, 131, doi:10.1256/qj05.142, 2006.
  • F. Birol, J.M. Brankart, J.M. Lemoine, P. Brasseur and J. Verron: Assimilation of satellite altimetry referenced to the new GRACE geoid estimate. Geophys. Res. Letters., 32, doi:10.1029/2004GL021329, 2005.
  • F. Birol, J.M. Brankart, F. Castruccio, P. Brasseur and J. Verron: Impact of mean dynamic topography on multivariate data assimilation hindcasts, J. of Marine Geodesy, 27, 59-78, 2004.
  • R. Morrow, F. Birol, D. Griffin and J. Sudre: Divergent pathways of warm and cold-core ocean eddies, Geophys. Res. Letters, 31: L24311, doi:10.1029/2004GL020974, 2004.
  • F. Birol and R. Morrow: Separation of quasi-semiannual Rossby waves from the eastern boundary of the Indian Ocean. J. of Marine Res., 61, 707-723, 2003.
  • F. Birol and R. Morrow: Source of the baroclinic waves in the southeast Indian Ocean: J. Geophys. Res., 106, 9,145 - 9,160, 2001.
  • F. Birol and R. Morrow: A study of the southeast Indian Ocean from altimetric, wind and XBT data. Phys. Chem. Earth (a), 24, nº 4, 387-391, 1999.
  • R. Morrow and F. Birol: Variability in the southeast Indian Ocean from altimetry ? forcing mechanisms for the Leeuwin Current. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 18,529-18,544, 1998.





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